What is incontinence?
Incontinence is any involuntary loss of urine. It is further defined by type as either stress, urge, mixed, overflow, functional or reflex (neurologic) incontinence. Treatment is dependent on the type of incontinence. Current therapies include dietary changes, scheduled voiding, bladder retraining, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback, electrical stimulation therapy, medication, collagen implants and surgery.
What is female Urology?
The subspecialty of female urology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of those urinary tract disorders most prevalent in females. These include recurrent urinary tract infection, voiding dysfunction, incontinence, urethral syndrome and interstitial cystitis. Expert evaluation of these conditions includes a complete history and physical exam. X-ray studies may be required to fully evaluate the urinary tracts. Additional bladder studies such as cystoscopy and urodynamics may be necessary.
What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)?
BPH is a non-cancerous condition in which prostate cells grow, enlarge the gland and cause it to squeeze the urethra. A variety of symptoms may result, including difficult, frequent or urgent urination.
Who is at risk for BPH?
Generally, men over the age of 60. It is estimated that one in every four men in the United States will be treated for relief of symptomatic BPH.
Is there a BPH-cancer link?
BPH is not cancer and there is no reported link between BPH and cancer
What is a recurrent urinary tract infection?
A recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) may be generally defined as three or more infections within one year. This is usually related to a primary urologic disorder such as stones, tumour, reflux (urine flows backwards toward the kidney) or ineffective bladder emptying. Treatment is aimed at identifying the cause and/or proper antibiotic therapy to break the cycle of recurrent infection.
What is voiding dysfunction?
Voiding dysfunction can take many forms. The main symptoms are urinary frequency, painful urination and/or incomplete bladder emptying. Treatment is aimed at decreasing or eliminating symptoms. Treatment may involve medications or pelvic floor relaxation exercises.
What is urethral syndrome?
Urethral syndrome is a condition involving pain at the urethra that can occur during urination or without regard to urination. Treatment may consist of oral medication or local oestrogen replacement therapy. Urethral syndrome may exist as a component of interstitial cystitis.
What is interstitial cystitis?
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a urologic syndrome characterised by excessive urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia (night time urination) and pain in the lower abdomen and/or perineum. It can occur at any age, however, the median age at diagnosis is between 42 and 46 years. The cause of IC is unclear. It is believed to be related to irregularities in the bladder lining and/or an allergic/immune response. IC can severely affect an individual’s quality of life. Promising developments in the treatment of IC include the medication. Hydrodistention of the bladder under anaesthesia is a common therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. In the most severe cases, surgery including denervation, urinary diversion and augmentation cystoplasty may be performed.